What's new for sharing maps and data in ArcGIS 10.1
ArcGIS for Desktop offers a unified publishing experience
At ArcGIS 10.0, you could publish GIS resources such as maps, tools, and locators to ArcGIS for Server using ArcGIS for Desktop or Manager. The method that you chose for publishing was based on a variety of factors, such as your level of permissions, experience, or personal preference. At 10.1, GIS resources that you attempt to publish to an ArcGIS Server are put through a more rigorous analysis process to make sure they are ready to be exposed on the web. You'll need to analyze your GIS resources in ArcGIS for Desktop before you can publish them to ArcGIS Server.
The publishing of services to an on-premises or cloud-based ArcGIS for Server can be invoked directly from the main menu in ArcGIS for Desktop by choosing File > Share As > Service. Additionally, you can right-click certain GIS resources, such as a geodatabase, in ArcCatalog or the Catalog window in ArcGIS for Desktop and choose Share As Service. The items on the Share As Service wizard will help you configure, analyze, and publish your GIS resource to an ArcGIS Server as a service.
To learn more about how to leverage the unified publishing experience, see the topic About publishing services.
Packaging Tile caches, GP tasks, and Address locators
At ArcGIS 10.0, you could package GIS resources such as maps and layers using ArcGIS for Desktop. You could share these packages with others inside or outside your organization either by e-mailing the package, by copying the package to a well-know share on your network, or by uploading the package to ArcGIS Online. At 10.1, you can package Tile caches, GP tasks, and Address locators and share them in a manner similar to map and layer packages.